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                      Different from vitiligo and albinism, sun exposure and friction can cause vitiligo

                      Type:Uv phototherapy   Time:2018-11-24 11:43:53 Albinos and vitiligo are all pigmented skin diseases. Both are mainly white spots on the skin as the main clinical manifestations, no obvious itch pain. But albinism and vitiligo are two distinct diseases. So what is the difference between albinism and vitiligo? What kind of disease is vitiligo?

                      How to distinguish between albinism and vitiligo

                      1. Age of onset

                      Albinism has a clear "whitening" manifestation at birth; vitiligo occurs on the day after tomorrow and can begin at any age, but it has the highest number of cases before the age of 20.

                      2, family history

                      Albinism has a typical family genetic history; the incidence of vitiligo has a certain relationship with heredity, but there is no large amount of statistical data to confirm that Chinese scholars report that vitiligo and genetic related only account for 3.9% to 10.7%.

                      3, good hair parts

                      Generalized albinism is whitening of the skin, hair and eyes of the whole body; vitiligo can occur in any part, but it occurs in exposed areas and wrinkles.

                      4, white spot features

                      The skin of albino is white, the hair is white or yellowish, the eyes are lack of pigmentation, photophobia, and the daytime vision is unclear; the white spot of vitiligo is limited to the local part, the edge is clear, the surrounding pigment is slightly deep, and some white spots are scattered in the island-like pigment. Areas, white spots vary in size and shape, and physical stimulation can induce new white spots or enlarge the original white spots. The hair on the white spot can be white or not white.

                      5, pathological examination

                      The skin tissue of the patient was sliced ​​and observed under a microscope: the melanin of the epidermis of the patients with albinism completely disappeared; while the melanin of the white spot of the vitiligo patients decreased or completely disappeared, while the margin of melanin increased relatively.

                      6, treatment

                      The treatment of albino drugs is ineffective, and only physical shading can be used to alleviate the symptoms of the patients; vitiligo can be weakened or even disappeared after treatment with photosensitizing drugs, hormones and traditional Chinese medicines.

                      Clinical manifestations of vitiligo

                      The skin damage of vitiligo occurs the day after tomorrow, and its typical damage is scattered, well-defined white spots or patches. The leukoplakia can be grayish white, porcelain white or milky white, and can be round, scalloped, line-like or irregular. The edges can be from a slight jagged shape to a fairly clear diameter ranging from a few millimeters to several centimeters or even tens The centimeters are not equal, the surface is generally smooth, and there is no change such as shrinkage or desquamation. Most of the initial hair loss is pale white pigmentation spots, one or several pieces, the pigment does not completely disappear, so the boundary with normal skin is unclear, and some begin to develop on the onset of punctate hypopigmentation. The skin lesions gradually develop and expand, and they can fuse with each other. During the stable period, the white spots stop developing, and the milky white spots with complete pigment loss are formed. The boundary becomes clearer, and the pigmentation is often deepened at the edge of the white spot. The number of spots varies from small to single or several, and up to hundreds. The size of the leukoplakia varies from one area to a small area or a few small areas of skin lesions, or it can be extensively affected by the whole body and only some of the normal skin remains. At this time, normal skin remains in the white spots. Can be mistaken for pigmentation, such as occurs on the face often mistaken for chloasma.

                      Some new white spots have a slightly elevated inflammatory dark red wheel that lasts for weeks. This early change is often devoid of symptoms of conscious discomfort and is therefore easily overlooked. It is difficult to identify early white spots with blurred borders and no peripheral hyperpigmentation, so it is difficult to diagnose early. The degree of pigmentation varies from person to person, and varies from place to place in the same human body. Even in the same part, different shades can be displayed depending on the degree of discoloration. It can be up to three shades, that is, white, gray and near-normal skin color from the inside to the outside, and some completely white, and the surrounding skin is reddish or grayish white. These performances can generally help us observe the degree of melanogenesis and its reduction.

                      The disease can occur in any part of the body's skin, but it occurs in areas that are susceptible to sun exposure and friction damage, especially on the face (such as eyebrows, inside the eyebrows, joints between the nose and the cheeks, and the front of the ear). The upper part, the forehead hairline and the lip red part), the neck, the waist and abdomen (the belt of the Cambodian belt), the tail of the tail, the extension of the forearm and the back of the finger. The trunk and perineum are also common, and the palmar can also be affected. Most of the white spots are symmetrically distributed, and many cases are damaged along the nerve segments. In addition, cases that are symmetrically distributed at the end of the eyelids and extremities are often accompanied by self-spotting of the palmar part.

                      Patients with vitiligo usually have no conscious discomfort. However, about 10% of patients have dermatitis changes before pigment loss, which may be accompanied by varying degrees of itching or discomfort. After the disease develops, the symptoms no longer appear. In addition, some patients, especially those with light-colored skin, are prone to flushing, pain and itching, and even blistering after exposure to sunlight. What's more, even if it is exposed to the outdoors for a short time on a cloudy day, the above symptoms will occur.

                      Hair is an appendage to the skin, and there are melanocytes in the hair bulb that synthesize melanin and transport it to surrounding keratinocytes. Clinically, melanocytes in the epidermis of patients with vitiligo are often damaged, while melanocytes in the hair follicles are not affected, that is, the hair in the white spots does not decolorize. Decolorization of hair in vitiligo has special significance, because the main source of vitiligo pigment recovery is the melanocytes of the outer root sheath of the hair follicle, and the whitening of the hair means the destruction of the hair follicle melanocyte reservoir. At this time, the effect of drug treatment to restore color is often not ideal. By the same token, leukoplakia treatments on hairless smooth skin such as the finger, toe and mucosa are often ineffective. Summary of clinical reports, 9% to 45% of patients with hair involvement, manifested as white spots in the hair bleaching. Hair involvement can be seen in bilateral or unilateral vitiligo, but it seems more common in unilateral (segmental) type. Hair discoloration occurs in not all skin lesions in the same patient, and some or all of the hair may be whitened in a single lesion. In terms of parts, hair is most often affected, followed by eyebrows, pubic hair and mane. Sometimes the discoloration of the hair is not accompanied by the scalp leukoplakia under it. Extensive whitening of the hair is often a hallmark of refractory.

                      In addition to skin damage, mucous membranes in patients with vitiligo can also be damaged. Mucosal damage is likely to occur in the opening of the body cavity, such as the lips, gums, genitals, nipples, areola, etc. There are few reports on this topic. In addition, vitiligo can affect the eyes and ears, and abnormalities in the eyes and ears. This is because in addition to the skin, melanocytes are also distributed in the eyes, ears and some internal organs such as the pia mater, while in the vitiligo, not only the epidermal melanocytes are damaged, but also the melanocytes of the eyes and ears can be affected. Usually, patients with vitiligo rarely complain of abnormalities in the eye, but a thorough examination by ophthalmology reveals that up to 30% of patients have choroidal abnormalities and 5% of patients have iritis. A small number of patients may have retinal choroidal depigmentation or changes in tabby changes, optic disc atrophy or retinal artery stenosis. Similar to eye involvement, few patients complained about abnormal hearing, but hearing and brainstem auditory responses to vitiligo patients found that 13% to 16% of patients showed abnormal sensorineural hearing los

                      What is the difference between vitiligo and albinism?

                      Patients with vitiligo will have white hair in the late stage of the disease. However, is it true that all white hair is caused by vitiligo? There are many kinds of diseases in the clinic that cause whitening of the body hair. Patients with vitiligo must It is necessary to wait until the diagnosis is made to prevent the misdiagnosis and mistreatment of the condition. a. Albinism Albinism is a congenital skin whitening that can begin at any age and is not restricted by seasons and gender. Clinically, albino albinism generally refers to the generalized onset of the patient's body, the skin, hair and eyes of the patient's body. There will be a color change, and the skin of the albino patient will be completely white and the hair will be white or yellowish. b, vitiligo, vitiligo is a kind of pigmentation, generally do not say that the general system of pancreas will occur in the early stage of the disease, but will gradually spread the body to the whole body with the passage of time and the disease, the color of the white spot of vitiligo patients is also It will deepen with the development of the disease, which is light white, milky white and porcelain white. The size and shape of the white spots are different. The vitiligo is easy to occur in the exposed parts of patients.

                      Vitiligo and albinism are different and need to be treated differently

                      Vitiligo is distinct from albinism and is two different diseases. However, since both of them are pigmented skin diseases, they are based on the appearance of white spots on the body, and the body has no obvious itching. So how do you distinguish between the two diseases? 1, the cause of the disease is different: Albinism is a typical family heritage disease, although the incidence of vitiligo has a certain genetic relationship, but the probability is very small. 2, white spot symptoms are different: albino, the white hair at the body whitening all white, hair, hair, eyebrows, eyelashes, etc. will turn white, the eyes will also appear whitening symptoms, photophobia; and vitiligo is only a local lesion White, clear border with normal skin on the edges. 3, melanin loss performance: allergic melanin disappeared in patients with albinism; vitiligo patients in the lesion area melanin decreased or completely disappeared, while the marginal part of melanin increased. 4, drug treatment effect: drug treatment is not effective for albinism, only through physical methods such as shading to alleviate the patient's symptoms; and vitiligo can be treated with a variety of drugs such as photosensitizing drugs. 5, the disease site is different: albinism is generalized, systemic disease; and the onset of vitiligo is only a small area of ​​white spots, the scope is not large. 6, the age of onset is different.

                      How to distinguish between vitiligo and albinism

                      Vitiligo is an extremely stubborn and intractable skin condition. The symptoms of vitiligo are obvious, but similar to many diseases. So, how do you distinguish between vitiligo and albinism? For this question, please ask the experts to answer your questions in detail below. First, patients with albinism, their skin and hair will turn white, glasses are also lack of pigmentation, fear of strong light during the day, unclear. The white spot of vitiligo is limited to the body part at the beginning of the hair, and usually there is no large area of ​​hair whitening. Second, in the skin of patients with vitiligo, there will still be certain active melanocytes, so it is also possible to make corresponding judgments. For the judgment of vitiligo, patients must be timely, effective, scientific and accurate, so as to be able to receive treatment in a timely manner, thereby increasing the chance of cure of vitiligo and getting rid of white spots as soon as possible. Third, albinism is mostly congenital disease, many patients will be sick at birth, but vitiligo is only an acquired pigmentation, more common before the age of 20 years. For patients with albinism, it can be found through professional tests that the melanin in the skin is completely lost.